What do we screen for?

Strabismus (Crossed eyes / Squints)

squint
Commonly known as crossed eyes, strabismus is the condition when your child’s both eyes do not align in the same direction or move in unison. It is usually caused by weak eye muscle in one eye that appears to wander. Apart from being cosmetically unsightly, the eye may not function well in vision.

Pseudostrabismus

Pseudostrabismus refers to a false appearance of strabismus. Pseudostrabismus does not require treatment and the appearance tends to improve with time.

Amblyopia (Lazy eye)

Lazy-Eye
Known as lazy eye, amblyopia is the condition when one of your child’s eyes has not been developing normally, resulting in poor vision. It can also occurs when there is uncorrected refractive error and resulted in unbalanced vision on both eyes.

Myopia

Known as short-sightedness, myopia is the condition when your child cannot clearly see objects that are far away. This condition may be inherited or associated with premature birth and can occur at any age due to environmental factors.

Hyperopia

Known as far-sightedness, hyperopia is a vision condition in which either or both distance and near vision are affected. Far-sightedness occurs if your eyeball is too short or lens muscles in the eyes are weak, so light entering your eye is not focused correctly.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism
Astigmatism is an optical defect in which vision is blurred due to the inability of the optics of the eye to focus a sharp image on the retina. Hence, the shape of the eye is more similar to a rugby ball than a baseball which causes light rays to focus at different meridians on the retina. The prevalence of astigmatism is usually the highest in infancy and childhood.

Anisocoria

Anisocoria is characterized by an unequal size of the eyes' pupils. The presence of anisocoria can be normal (physiologic), or it can be a sign of an underlying condition.

Ptosis

Ptosis is the condition with drooping eyelids. The low riding superior lid can cause your child’s vision to be partially or completely obstructed by this condition.

Epiblepharon

Epiblepharon is a developmental eyelid anomaly characterized by an extra fold of skin and this redirects the lashes into a vertical position. This eyelash inversion contacts the globe and causes ocular surface irritation.

Childhood cataracts

Childhood cataract or congenital cataract is the condition where there is lens opacities in the eye that can obstruct light from entering. This can cause your child’s vision to be blur or misty as there are cloudy patches in their vision.

Color deficiency

Color Blindness
More commonly known as colour blindness, is the inability to distinguish the differences between certain colours. This condition is due to the absence of colour-sensitive pigment in the cone cells of the retina. Most colour vision problems are hereditary and are present at birth. Approximately 1 out of 12 men and 1 out of 200 women5 have some degree of colour deficiency.

Stereopsis

Stereopsis refers to the perception of depth. The differences between the two images from both eyes as perceived by the brain are integrated into a single one and hence, creating the 3D effect.

References

1) Aoa.org. Accessed on 11 June 2015. http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/hyperopia
2) Aapos.org. Accessed on 11 June 2015. http://www.aapos.org/client_data/files/2014/337_visionscreeningforinfantsandchildren_2013.pdf
3) Aapos.org. Accessed on 11 June 2015. http://www.aapos.org/terms/conditions/91
4) Allaboutvision.com. Accessed on 11 June 2015. http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/colordeficiency.htm
5) Colour Blind awarenesss. Accessed on 11 June 2015 http://www.colourblindawareness.org/colour-blindness/